Ripe for Change: Digital Media as a Tool for Innovation in Disciplinary Literacy

I was winding down at the end of a school day when I saw my son at the table in my office.

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He found my iPad, opened up Minecraft, and started working on his world. To aid in his creations, he would reference a Minecraft guide book from time to time. I didn’t have to offer any help in setting up his world or in guiding his reading. He was motivated to understand the text because it meant he could be more successful in creating new things in Minecraft.

Seeing these examples of learning in the absence of a teacher, it is both humbling and promising. Educators have responsibilities to ensure students meet expected levels of achievement. Report cards and test scores made public can determine the level of support we receive from our communities. Unfortunately, these assessments do not communicate how well students can teach themselves or how motivated they are to learn. The mindset that we should always be teaching may undermine students’ opportunities for self-directed learning.

Where do we find opportunities for kids to explore their passions and interests? I believe the content areas, especially in science and social studies, offer the best possibilities for rethinking how schools might improve the educational experience for students and teachers. Next are a couple of ideas for how a teacher might explore what’s possible.

Digital media literacy and civic engagement

In the current political races, more and more campaign dollars are being spent toward online advertising and constituent engagement. Right now in the fall of 2016, it is hard to avoid a political message when logged in on Facebook or Twitter. These communications are not limited to the candidates. Political commentators, journalists, and bloggers all weigh in on the current races for political positions.

Teachers can tap into the power of social media and design a series of lessons that help students develop a deeper understanding of the democratic process, recognize bias, and evaluate the validity of online content. For example, students could explore how the use of hashtags can have different levels of meaning depending on who is using them and why. The concept of hashtags for understanding social media moves beyond advertising and into the realms of networking and community-building.

This is important. Engaging students in developing a better understanding of digital media literacy has shown to increase students’ participation in civic activities, including creating original content online, and in developing more diverse perspectives of politics and important societal issues (Kahne, Feezell & Lee, 2010).

Gaming and scientific inquiry

Games such as Minecraft encourage both participation and collaboration. Students such as my son can build worlds virtually from scratch and invite others to join them via an Internet-enabled device. They construct these worlds through collectively agreed upon norms and goals. Chat rooms and in-person dialogue accompany their work.

As students become more fluent in these participatory technologies, teachers can leverage these tools to support content areas such as science. As an example, circuit building is an option for Minecraft participants. They have to mine the proper elements (i.e. Redstone) and place them in strategic locations to create a line (i.e. Redstone Dust) that can transmit energy. Now that students have their Minecraft creations powered up, then can operate doors and turn on lights.

These discoveries can serve as entry points for future explorations into scientific concepts such as electricity and renewable vs. nonrenewable resources. Games such as Mincraft can make abstract concepts more concrete. Just as important, students become active learners instead of passive recipients in school. “We know that people learn best, and enjoy most, when they are working on personally meaningful projects” (Resnick, 2012).

Teaching students through leveraging digital media tools to support their important projects will introduce them to information and concepts in more relevant and usable ways.

References

Kane, J., Feezell, J. T., Lee, N. (2010). Digital Media Literacy Education and Online Civic and Political Participation. Working paper: Youth & Participatory Politics. Available: http://dmlcentral.net/wp-content/uploads/files/LiteracyEducationandOnlineParticipation.WORKINGPAPER.pdf

Resnick, M. (2012). Reviving Papert’s Dream. Educational Technology. 52(5), pgs. 41-46.


This is a sponsored post. Rocket Island is a Kickstarter project. The creator, Timothy Young, is focused on creating an immersive and enjoyable 3D game with an educational purpose.

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Players explore a digital world to collect resources and information in order to launch a rocket into space. Young wants this game available to students from all around the world to learn about environmental science. If you can, please support this project

When starting to integrate technology as a school, what is the best approach regarding professional development?

This question was posted recently to me on Google+. The question asker, Jennifer Derricks, was prompted while reading my new book for ASCD Arias (yeah, a reader!). Here is my response:

Jennifer, this is a great question, and I will post it right here in Google+ so others can read my response. My answer is multi-faceted because there are several considerations when first starting to implement technology within instruction.

First, look at your building goals, your school’s past successes and areas for professional growth as a school. Where are you at, where do you want to be, and how might you get there? If you haven’t identified these yet, look at your student learning results. Pay special attention to the interim/benchmark assessments instead of standardized tests and their ilk. These common formative assessments can show you trends and patterns that will guide your work.

Once you have a focus for professional learning that has a good chance of impacting student learning, the second step is to consider one possibility for technology-enhanced instruction. When I say one, I mean ONE!! (sorry for shouting). For our school, there was a recognized need to augment our assessments to provide access and accommodation for our students, especially our most marginalized. Using digital tools such as blogs and portfolios have given students a greater voice in how they can be assessed with regard to what they know and are able to do.

Third, it is okay to pilot technology integration with only a handful of teachers in the first year. We selected the willing and the interested. Once they became accomplished in using the digital tools with fluency, they became our building leaders in terms of explaining the benefits of the initiative to the rest of the staff. Some of these teacher leaders have led staff development for us at later times. Our staff development offerings are voluntary, paid, and led by the participants’ questions which they post via Google Form prior to the sessions. It cannot be just the principal leading this change process.

Finally, make this initiative a multi-year focus that is embedded within a current academic goal. One year is not enough. Plan for at least three years for these enhancements to truly take hold in your school and make an impact on student learning. Also, expect an implementation dip during the process, probably the second year. In my experience, this happens when you think things are running along smoothly. This is a sign that teachers are starting to move beyond the basics of the technology and ready for more training with regard to more complex uses of the tools.

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Image Source: Renwick, M. Digital Student Portfolios: A Whole School Approach to Connected Learning and Continuous Assessment (2014)

Also, if the technology is not up to the pedagogical challenge (and you’d be surprised at how many are not), it might be time to shift gears and consider different digital tools that better meet the needs of the students and teachers.
Good luck with your schoolwide approach to digitally-enhanced learning!

-Matt

 

(Re)Defining Student Engagement

“The best evidence for student engagement is what students are saying and doing as a consequence of what the teacher does, or has done, or has planned.” – Charlotte Danielson

This past week I conducted instructional walks in ten different classrooms. Using only paper and pen, I wrote observations describing ten distinct teaching styles. These initial visits have confirmed what I have known for several years of experience as a school principal and teacher evaluator: Engagement in learning happens most frequently and deeply when students are actively involved in instruction.

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photo credit: IMG_6414 via photopin (license)

Engagement (student involvement in instruction) can be described in a variety of ways. I think too often engagement is exclusively predefined by educators as “hands on”, “students doing more talking than the teacher”, or “active”. These descriptors may all be key indicators of engagement. But the definition should not stop there.

For example, I was the fortunate observer of a math lesson that would seem to run counter to this pattern, at least at first glance. The learning target: Demonstrate multiple ways to solve multiple digit addition problems. The teacher, who already modeled a few problems by working through them in front of students on the document camera, asked if there were three students willing to show their peers one of three ways to solve a given problem. Several hands shot up. Once selected, the three volunteers headed to the board.

The rest of the class was directed to also try one of the three methods at their desks. As some students completed the problem before others, the teacher, who was roaming around the room doing spot checks and providing quick feedback, announced, “If you solved it one way, why not try it another way?” Every student who was ready took her up on the challenge. This option gave other students more time to work.

Once the students at the front of the room were done with their work, they went back to their desks. Their faces beamed with pride. The teacher went over the process with the whole group: “Yes, you regrouped here…the place value alignments are accurate…” The teacher also asked the rest of the class to show their work on their dry erase boards with their partner sitting next to them. “Did your method work just as well as your partner’s? Talk about that.” They did.

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photo credit: UF Keene-Flint Classroom Desks Windows via photopin (license)

We in education talk so much about engagement in concert with terms like “collaboration”, “technology”, and “passion”. Is this where the best learning takes place? Sometimes, maybe even often, but certainly not always. For example, I can have passion about something, but if I don’t put the necessary time, thought, and energy into developing the skills and understandings related to it, then it is merely a hobby and possibly not worth knowing well. One passion of mine is writing. If I didn’t sit down and “do the work”, I’d have nothing but half-developed ideas floating around in my mind.

It’s important that we take the concept of engagement and rethink its meaning, as it has been defined within the context of today’s classroom. Consider:

  • If students had been left to their own devices and allowed to work in loose groups, what guarantee would the teacher have that everyone was developing a better understanding while this collaboration was happening?
  • Speaking of devices, kids could certainly have seen some worked problems online prior to class, and then provided more time during class for the teacher to work with students who needed the support. But could we be assured that every student watched the recorded instruction actively and without distraction?
  • As a former middle level mathematics teacher myself, I know how challenging it can be to instill a sense of passion for the subject. By including the students in the instructional responsibilities, everyone had a stake in the process and the outcomes. Passion is then connected with purpose and community.

I call on all school leaders, myself included, to put aside our biases and misconceptions regarding student engagement, as we engage in our own learning experiences during our frequent visits to classrooms. When classrooms that are set up in rows of desks are described as “tombstones”, we make unfair generalizations of a teacher’s abilities to educate their students. When we document the lack of technology integration in a lesson that has no need for it, we show our bias toward a maximalist approach to digital learning. When we find a quiet classroom, it may be inaccurate to assume that learning isn’t occurring. Let our student actions and dispositions guide our professional assessments.

What Can Be Gained When We Lose Our Connection With Technology

One of the most pervasive myths about the benefits of technology in education, and learning in general, is the need for digital tools to be available 24 hours a day, seven days a week. “Learn anytime, anywhere” is proudly proclaimed when educators effuse all the benefits of learning via online courses and through social media such as Twitter. Time is the only constraint while connected in the 21st century, apparently.

William Powers, in his book Hamlet’s Blackberry: Building a Good Life in the Digital Age, describes this phenomena as taking a “maximalist” approach with our digital tools. The basic idea is the more connected we are, the better. I’m as susceptible as anyone. Even though I have turned off the notifications on certain apps and have silenced my ringtone, I still find myself checking my phone many times throughout the day.

I needed a break. That’s why I left my devices at home during a recent family vacation.

This separation from our digital tools and connections is sometimes referred to as “tech sabbaticals”, encouraged by Tiffany Shlain and other forward-minded thinkers. Our family headed out to the Pocono Mountains to meet my brothers, parents, and cousins for a weeklong vacation. What came with me: The essentials (clothes, toiletries, etc.), lots of books, notebooks and pens for writing, and…that’s about it. What didn’t make the cut: My laptop, my smartphone, and anything school-related. I guess I needed a break from my job as an elementary school principal as much as from digital tools.

The two pieces of technology I did bring with me were my wife’s old Kindle and an iPad. The Kindle is really convenient. I can house a lot of books in one small location. Before we left, I loaded it up with a bunch of eBooks from our public library via Overdrive for my son, daughter, and myself. I don’t consider this technology as being connected (which kind of says something about the short cycle of these devices going mainstream). As for the iPad, we brought it largely so the kids could watch a movie we had downloaded on it. The wireless at our location was a paid service, which I knew I wouldn’t take advantage of during our vacation.

My time away could be observed at varied levels. Geography-wise, I felt right at home in the woods of Northeastern Pennsylvania, which largely resembled my current residence in Central Wisconsin. Beyond the obvious, I believe my social and emotional well-being benefitted from this sabbatical from technology. I was more present for people’s conversations, the kids’ activities, and just life in general. As familiar as Pennsylvania seemed to be to me, there were also certain differences. For example, the rolling hills of PA reminded me that this land was largely untouched by glaciers, unlike Wisconsin.

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Maybe the most important benefit gained during my technology sabbatical was relational. It is one thing to constantly check your social media feeds and email accounts. It is quite another when other people, especially those you have just met or rarely see, observe your habits. The message I believe that is portrayed is, “Whatever is happening online is more important to me than anything you might have to say or offer.” What is conveyed here is largely indirect, but it nonetheless exists.

I’d be a liar if I didn’t admit to checking my social media feeds and email messages a couple times while on the trip. My wife’s smartphone was the connection source. There were a few instances during our vacation where there was a lull in the action, which I felt was an opportunity to engage in online interactions.

Also, and to be fair, my wife took this excellent picture of my son while on a hike in the Pocono Mountains.

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She posted it on Facebook. I have to admit, if my wife had not brought her iPhone 6 with her on this trip, I never would have seen this image. I was not on the hike, and instead golfing with my brothers and cousins. The digital camera we had at our vacation site was too unwieldy to bring on a hike. So there are certainly sacrifices one must make when we choose to disconnect. However, would life be any different had I not had this photo? Sure, by looking at the experience my wife captured with her smartphone, I felt a little bit more a part of it. But at the same time, there was also this twinge of guilt of choosing golf with my brothers and other family members over a hike with my wife and kids.

This isn’t how being connected is supposed to work, right? By posting and conversing online, we create a smaller world and bring people closer together. Yet it often has the opposite effect. In her book Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other, Sherry Turkle cites examples where being connected online leaves people feeling inadequate in their lack of availability. “In a tethered world, too much is possible, yet few can resist measuring success against a metric of what they could accomplish if they were always available.” (164). How sad that our self-assessment as a person could be determined from the impossible task of being in two places at one time.

Technology is not to blame, but it is also not absolved from all wrongdoing. Smartphones and their ilk are distractible by design. App developers and digital device providers want us to use their products. A lot. The more times we visit their sites and click on their links, the more money those companies make, and the more we view these tools as indispensable for our everyday lives.

On this last note, I beg to differ. Life was fine not just ten years ago, before smartphones were the norm rather than an anomaly. That is why, after reflecting on my most recent “digital deprivation”, I am committing to the following:

  • Checking email only a couple times a day.
  • Not carrying my smartphone everywhere I go.
  • If someone is speaking to me, put my digital device out of sight.
  • Determining what social media is truly necessary on my phone.
  • Finding future opportunities to leave all technology at home.

I’ll do my best to adhere to these commitments and reflect on the experience in the future.

Reading Year in Review – 2013

Inspired by Regie Routman’s most recent post about what she’s reading, I thought I would do the same on my blog. Below are the books I read in 2013. I am sure I read a few more than what was listed here, but I was too busy reading to post them on Goodreads! Some of these titles are rereads, noted with an *. These books deserved another read because they had more to offer than one round would provide.

The Sandwich Swap
The Mysteries of Harris Burdick (Portfolio Edition)
The End of the Beginning
Tiny Titans Vol. 8: Aw Yeah Titans!
Odd Boy Out: Young Albert Einstein
Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking
Underwater Dogs
Coaching Conversations: Transforming Your School One Conversation at a Time
Teaching Students to Read Like Detectives: Comprehending, Analyzing, and Discussing Text
Motion Leadership in Action: More Skinny on Becoming Change Savvy
The Ocean at the End of the Lane
Projecting Possibilities for Writers: The How, What, and Why of Designing Units of Study, K-5
The Fault in Our Stars
Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning
Shift Omnibus Edition (Silo, #2) (Wool, #6-8)
Wool
Everything Bad is Good for You
Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives
Wherever You Go, There You Are (ROUGH CUT)
Big Red Lollipop
Doctor Sleep (The Shining, #2)
Assessment in Perspective:  Focusing on the Reader Behind the Numbers
Marty McGuire
Reading in the Wild: The Book Whisperer's Keys to Cultivating Lifelong Reading Habits
No More Independent Reading Without Support (Not This But That)
Learning Targets: Helping Students Aim for Understanding in Today's Lesson
Galaxy Zack: Hello, Nebulon
To Sell Is Human: The Surprising Truth About Moving Others
An Orange for Frankie
Hamlet's BlackBerry: A Practical Philosophy for Building a Good Life in the Digital Age
The Smartest Kids in the World: And How They Got That Way
Out of Our Minds: Learning to be Creative
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (Harry Potter, #1)
Mr. Penumbra's 24-Hour Bookstore
John, Paul, George & Ben
Abe Lincoln's Dream
So What Do They Really Know?: Assessment That Informs Teaching and Learning
The Read-Aloud Handbook: Seventh Edition
Embedded Formative Assessment
Each Kindness
The 5th Wave (The 5th Wave, #1)
World Class Learners: Educating Creative and Entrepreneurial Students

Books of Note

Favorite Fiction: The Wool trilogy by Hugh Howey

Humanity is sequestered to a silo underground, due to some event that made the surface of Earth uninhabitable. How the remaining members of civilization live and interact in this alternative world makes for a fascinating read. I have read the first two installments and plan to read the final book soon. If you investigate the back story on this series, you will discover the author self-published his writing online as a short story, in order to sustain ownership and to get feedback on how the story should proceed. Using his fans’ input, he crafted the rest of the Wool series, which then lead to a larger book deal. Is this the future of writing? If excellent science fiction like Wool is the result, I wouldn’t mind.

Suggested Nonfiction/Informative: The Read Aloud Handbook by Jim Trelease

This resource should be in the home of every young family. Some hospitals hand this book to new mothers and fathers after delivery. Whenever a parent asks me about what they can do to help their child become a reader, my response is usually, “Read aloud to them, every day.” My school received a grant to promote reading aloud with our families. We will be hosting a book study on The Read Aloud Handbook with parents starting in January, along with putting up Little Free Libraries in our community. Look for a post on the Nerdy Book Club blog on January 4th to learn more about this essential title.

Recommended Paired Reading: The Smartest Kids in the World: And How They Got That Way by Amanda Ripley and World Class Learners: Educating Creative and Entrepreneurial Students by Dr. Yong Zhao

Although I did not read both titles at the same time, I believe they would work well together if someone were studying education in the age of technology and globalization. In The Smartest Kids, Amanda Ripley follows three U.S. students as they participate in foreign exchange programs in South Korea, Finland, and Poland. That all three score higher than the U.S. on the PISA, an internationally-based standardized test, is no accident. This piece of investigative journalism gives the audience an anecdotal perspective of the difference between the U.S. educational system and these three countries. Although I felt the author gave too much credence to one assessment, she does make a compelling case that the U.S. does need to ramp up our expectations for students’ learning, especially in mathematics. Ripley also showcases the greater amount of respect other countries have for the teaching profession.

Where The Smartest Kids gives the reader an up close and personal report about education, World Class Learners provides a more aerial, 20,000 feet in the air point of view on learning. Dr. Zhao also looked at the PISA scores, and placed them side-by-side with an assessment on students’ engagement and entrepreneurship potential. The result: A strong correlation between high test scores and low creativity. The author, a professor in the University of Oregon’s College of Education, surmises that when schools focus on one right answer due to tests, students’ imagination and innovation skills are not as developed. When you combine this evidence with the fact that standardized test results cannot be used to teach more responsively, one wonders what we are really measuring and why. As Dr. Zhao astutely points out in his most recent post on his blog, “Global benchmarking can only give you the best of the past.”

Where their two philosophies converge is the belief that U.S. schools can do better. Whether it is through better teacher preparation programs, or through professional development focused on student interests and project-based learning, both authors believe life long learning and high expectations are the key to our country’s future success.

What’s On Deck? Books I Want to Read in 2014

Sophia's War: A Tale of the Revolution
The Shallows: What the Internet is Doing to Our Brains
The City of Mirrors (The Passage, #3)
Life Itself: A Memoir
Better: A Surgeon's Notes on Performance
Dust (Silo, #3)
Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age
High-Impact Instruction: A Framework for Great Teaching
Unmistakable Impact: A Partnership Approach for Dramatically Improving Instruction
Let the Great World Spin
Sunshine
The Brilliant Fall of Gianna Z.
Children Want to Write: Donald Graves and the Revolution in Children's Writing
Paddle Your Own Canoe: One Man's Fundamentals for Delicious Living
Cooked: A Natural History of Transformation
The Long Earth
The Abominable
Evocative Coaching: Transforming Schools One Conversation at a Time

Any thoughts on the titles and perspectives I share? What books did you thoroughly enjoy this year? What’s on your to-read pile for 2014? Please share in the comments.

Using Technology to Personalize Learning in Elementary Schools

On Tuesday, October 15 at 4 P.M. CST, I am co-facilitating a webinar for Education Week. You can register for the free webinar here: https://vts.inxpo.com/scripts/Server.nxp?LASCmd=AI:4;F:QS!10100&ShowKey=16341&Referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2F

For my part, I am describing how technology can be embedded within best practice to facilitate deep levels of learning. Specifically, digital student portfolios are a tool my school is using. iPads and Evernote are the tools of choice. Unfortunately, there wasn’t enough time or space to include this video tutorial. It shows how to set up a digital student portfolio in Evernote and input a student’s first learning artifact. Self-assessment and feedback are just a few of the learning activities that can occur when using technology in a meaningful way.

If you have questions and/or thoughts beyond what you see here or heard through the webinar, please share in the comments.

What’s Your Intention? Mindfulness, Technology, and Hamlet’s BlackBerry

Has your connectedness made you feel overwhelmed at times? I would answer yes. Spurred by this realization, along with a colleague’s recommendation, I read Hamlet’s Blackberry: A Practical Philosophy for Building a Good Life in the Digital Age (Harper, 2010) by William Powers. It deftly describes both the benefits and perils of being connected in today’s world. This book spoke to me on several levels: as a reader, as a connected educator, as a father and husband, and as a learner. It is worth noting that the author takes a reasonable approach with the digital life. He likes being connected, but is mindful about his use of technology.

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photo credit: Stuck in Customs via photopin cc

I will try not to make this post too book-reporty. Instead, I will list some of my favorite quotes from the text, my takeaways, and how I have considered applying these concepts to my own life.

There’s a difference between access to information and the experience of it. Reading evolved away from the crowd for a reason; it wasn’t the best way to read. (p 135)

Takeaway: The author is referencing Gutenberg’s printing press and how it expanded literacy to a global level of access. Before this, reading was a social experience. If you were literate and could afford books, you read aloud so everyone could enjoy the text. Reading silently wasn’t a normal practice until much later.

Application: I have become more cognizant about the format I read on. Some books lend themselves well to print, while others read just as well in digital. However, I have reverted from reading books on my iPad to using my wife’s “old” Kindle when reading a digital text. I download the book(s) I want and then turn off the wireless. This practice prevents me from clicking on URLs in the text I am sometimes tempted to select. My reading experience feels deeper because I alone am expected to make meaning.

Digital screens are tools of selectivity, but using them is more reactive, a matter of fending off and filtering. Because a paper notebook isn’t connected to the grid, there’s no such defensiveness. The selectivity is autonomous and entirely self-directed. (p 152)

Takeaway: The notebook in question is Moleskine. The author uses them all the time to jot down notes while on the go. He parallels our notebooks to Shakespeare and his use of tables (erasable wax tablets used centuries ago to write ideas on for later reference). There is a sense of grounding when we put our thoughts down on paper. They seem to become more real and concrete.

Application: This totally affirmed my affinity for Moleskine notebooks! Probably not by chance, I really started using them around the time I became more connected in the fall of 2011. What I use often is the Moleskine Evernote Smart Notebook. I can scan my handwritten pages into a note, which is then searchable with a Premium account (and if Evernote can read my handwriting, rest assured it can read yours). Now I don’t have to be tethered to a screen when trying to capture my learning.

Take a walk without a digital gadget, and distance is yours…It’s a psychic leash, and the mind can feel it tugging. That’s the problem: We’ve gotten so used to the tugging, it’s hard to imagine life without it. (p 211)

Takeaway: Take a moment to observe any public area and you will find a large number of people checking their smart phones. McDonald’s, your school lobby, the park, it doesn’t matter. Whenever there seems to be a lull in activity, people naturally look to their smart phones to occupy their minds.

Application: I am as guilty of this as anyone. When I should have been engaging in conversation with my kids, I have caught myself checking my Twitter feed. That is why I have made a point to not bring digital devices everywhere I go. As well, I am attempting to take “tech sabbaticals” once a week. This break usually falls on a Sunday, which is the Sabbath anyway. I refrain from checking email, social media, or anything else technology-wise that would distract me from being present with my family and for myself.

Paper is arguably becoming more useful, since it offers exactly what we need and crave, a little disconnectedness. (p 216)

Takeway: The author repeatedly comes back to the importance of depth, the state of digging deeply into one’s mind and reflecting upon past learning experiences. When we don’t have gaps in our connectedness, we prevent ourselves from ever having more than superficial, surface-level understandings of complex issues. Depth is born out of reflection from our experiences, not just from the experiences themselves.

Application: For schools promoting paperless classrooms and Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) initiatives, this information should give leaders pause. If a student is always connected to a device, when do they have time to remove themselves from the flow of information and digest everything they have encountered? We need to build in these points for reflection if we expect students to retain and apply the important concepts and skills of their school experience.

Click here to order this book. You can decide whether to read it in print or digitally. 🙂