Do no Harm

When used casually, AR helps students’ reading abilities grow. When used thoughtfully and with proven techniques, it leads to tremendous gains and a lifelong love of reading. – Getting Results with Accelerated Reader, Renaissance Learning

I am currently reading aloud Millions by Frank Cottrell Boyce to my 10 year old son. It is an interesting “what if” story: the main character and his older brother find a bag of money thrown off of a train in England. The problem is that England’s currency is soon transitioning from pounds to the euro. To add a wrinkle to the narrative, the main character’s mother recently passed away. To add another wrinkle, the main character can speak to deceased saints canonized within the Catholic Church. This story is nothing if not interesting and hard to predict.

Reading aloud to my son sometimes leads to conversations about other books. For instance, I asked him about a fantasy series that also seemed to stretch one’s imagination. I thought it was right up his alley. Yet he declined. Pressed to explain why, my son finally admitted that he didn’t want to read that series because he failed an Accelerated Reader quiz after reading the first book. Here is our conversation:

Me: “When did you read the book in that series?”

Son: “Back at my older school.”

Me: “Why did you take a quiz on it?”

Son: “Because we had to take at least one quiz every month.”

Me: “Did you not understand the book?”

Son: “I thought I did. It was hard, but I liked it.”

This is an educational fail. When an assessment such as Accelerated Reader causes a student to not want to read, this should be a cause for concern. To be clear, Accelerated Reader is an assessment tool designed to measure reading comprehension. Yet it is not a valid tool for driving instruction. What Works Clearinghouse, a source for existing research on educational programming, found Accelerated Reader to have “mixed effects on comprehension and no discernible effects on reading fluency for beginning readers.” In other words, if a school were to implement Accelerated Reader, they should expect to find results that were not reliable, with the possibility of no impact on student learning. Consider this as you ponder other approaches to promoting independent reading.

It should also be noted that none of the studies listed took a look at the long term effects of using Accelerated Reader on independent reading. That would make for an interesting study.

I realize that it makes simple sense to quiz a student about their comprehension after reading a book. Why not? The problem is, when a student sees the results of said quiz, they appear to attribute their success or failure to their abilities as a reader. Never mind that the text might have been boring and only selected because of points, that the test questions were poorly written, that the teacher had prescribed the text to be read and tested without any input from the student, or that the test results would be used toward an arbitrary reading goal such as points. Any one of these situations may have skewed the results. In addition, why view not passing an AR quiz as a failure? It might be an opportunity to help the student unpack their reading experience in a constructive way.

What I would say is to take a step back from independent reading, and to appreciate it as a whole. What are we trying to do with this practice? Independent reading, as the phrase conveys, means to develop a habit of and love for lifelong, successful reading. This means the appropriate skills, strategies and dispositions should be developed with and by students. Any assessment that results in a student not wanting to read more interferes with that process and causes more problems than benefits. The Hippocratic Oath in medicine states “Do no harm”. Sounds like wisdom education should heed as well.

Suggestion for further reading: My Memory of The Giver by Dylan Teut

What I’m Reading: December 2016

I did then what I knew how to do. Now that I know better, I do better.

-Maya Angelou

  • Allen, N. (November 2016). So Many Literacies. The Council Chronicle (NCTE), pgs. 10-13.

This article summarizes author Lauren Rosenberg’s work developing writing skills with adult learners. Rosenberg questions the label “illiterate” for those who cannot read or write yet.

‘Illiteracy’ suggests illness, and not just individual illness but some kind of social illness. Our culture frames the nonliterate as being lesser. It’s important to get away from the idea that a person who doesn’t have the benefits of reading and writing has something wrong with them.

Her approach for working with adults is to use their personal narratives as a way to develop their reading and writing skills. These students saw themselves not only as victims of circumstance, but also as agents for change. Through their writing, they were able to “re-story” their lives.

It takes us back to an idea that originates in narrative psychology. You can use writing to reexamine and even correct an impression. You can change how you see yourself, and how others see you. You can correct the narrative that’s been used against you and that’s portrayed you in a way you don’t want to be portrayed.

Through this very personal literacy experience, students were also able to build their reading and writing skills.

  • Hogan, J. J. (December 2016). Troubling a “Cultured Hell”: Empowering Adolescent Voices through Youth Participatory Action Research. Voices from the Middle (NCTE), 39-41.

Jamie Jordan Hogan is an instructional coach and former middle school English teacher. To engage her students, she guided them to conduct action research on a topic they were passionate about during their research writing unit. No topic seemed to be off the table; students elected to research race, class, sexuality, and immigration policy, as examples. Hogan questions why teachers do not embrace this approach in English classrooms.

The burning question for us as educators: What are we so afraid of? Is it a fear of a personal conflict? A fear of judgment? A fear that we may be obligated to confront our own individual prejudices and biases?

The teacher applies the steps of action research, including developing a driving question, creating an action plan, facilitating data collection, and presenting their findings. Students used a variety of digital and traditional tools to conduct their research. Face to face communication, such as peer dialogue and interviews, were critical for success. The outcomes, beyond their final products, was a feeling of empowerment as learners.

Students do not want to be mere passersby in their own education. They want to make their mark and have an active voice in the communities in which they live.

  • O’Byrne, W. I. (November/December 2016). Scaffolding Digital Creation. Literacy Today (ILA), pgs. 14-15.

A literacy professor offers three steps for moving students from consumers to creators of digital content. O’Byrne sees many educational activities today positioning students in the former role. However, to be able to truly understand the web, he feels it is critical that students understand how content is created as well as the active role they might take.

For students…their ability to best use these literacies is central to our collective future. Educators should continue to show that they can work with students to understand and prepare them for these digital spaces and beyond.

The pathway of consumption to curation to creation is one way teachers can provide the necessary support for students to build with and use digital literacy applications. Voicethread, Pinterest, and Hypothes.is are three tools referenced in the article.

  • Souto-Manning, M. (2016). Honoring and Building on the Rich Literacy Practices of Young Bilingual and Multilingual Learners. The Reading Teacher, 70(3), 263271.

Similar to the first article in this review, the author points out the negative connotations of referring to students with labels couched in deficit-based foundations, such as “English as Second Language (ESL) learners”.

All of these labels—LEP, ESL, ESOL, ENL, and ELL—have one thing in common: They position children as being inferior or having deficits.

Souto-Manning prefers the term “emergent bilingual” to describe students who are already fluent in one language and learning English – an additional language – in school. Through this mindset, these students can now be seen as having an advantage. A powerful strategy for incorporating students’ different backgrounds within instruction is ensuring literature that is read aloud and available in classrooms represents a diversity of cultures.

Literacies, Reframed

So much of our literacy curriculum in schools today is focused on skill development and strategy acquisition. Do students have the ability to decode unfamiliar text? Can they use context clues to understand a new word? Are students able to organize their ideas from what they have read and what they know into a cogent article or essay? All are important to know and be able to do. Yet they are not the function of reading and writing. They are the tools that open the door to literacy. But an open door is only the beginning.

The purpose of reading and writing can be broken down into one of two main purposes: to entertain and to acquire and transmit knowledge. Often (at least for me anyway), I read and write for a mix of both purposes. For example, when I read a work of excellent fiction, I usually end the book with a better understanding of myself and others. Likewise, when I write pieces such as this, I am frequently considering my audience and how I can keep them engaged in reading to the end (you are still with me, right?).

All of these articles summarized here promote literacy as more than just learning how to read or write. These practices can be life-changing. Illiterate adults learn to reframe their identities through writing. Adolescents discover the power of language to explore wonderings relevant to their lives. Students start to see themselves as producers of knowledge instead of merely consumers. Immigrants are positioned as experts within the context of school, seeing their bilingualism as an advantage instead of a deficit.

These topics are often explored in the current literacy journals and published research. I subscribe to many of these resources because the standards do not adequately address them. By becoming more knowledgeable, we can serve our students even better.

 

 

Three Ways to Increase Student Engagement in Reading

The research is clear: If a student is not motivated to read and is not engaged in the text, all of the strategy instruction a teacher might provide may be for naught (Guthrie and Klauda, 2014; Ivey, 2014; Wanzek et al, 2014). That is why it is critical that we make reading meaningful so that students make meaning out of what they are reading and become lifelong readers.

The following three activities are excellent beginnings for increasing reading engagement.

1. Reading Aloud

This is quite possibly the most underutilized practice K-12 that also has the greatest potential for developing engaged readers. It’s how I got engaged in reading – my 3rd grade teacher read aloud Tales of a 4th Grade Nothing by Judy Blume. I was hooked. I don’t know how many times I reread that book after hearing it read aloud (my parents could verify).

When I was a 5th and 6th grade teacher, one of my go-to resources was The Read Aloud Handbook by Jim Trelease. The treasury of recommended read alouds in the back of the book was indensible to me as a busy classroom teacher. Whatever he recommended, I know I could count on as a quality text that would create an excellent shared reading experience with my students.

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As a school principal, I continue to utilize reading aloud. For example, I read favorite poems, jokes and quotes during morning announcements. Also, teachers invite me to read a favorite picture book in their classroom. It’s a great way to share an excellent story while also getting to know the students better. In addition, I model for everyone – students and teachers – the importance of creating shared experiences around the written word.

2. Speedbooking

The purpose of this activity is to introduce students to new titles they might want to read and add them to their to-read list. The power in this practice is that the students are the ones recommending the books, not the teacher. This idea comes from an article out of the Wisconsin State Reading Association journal. It is an activity designed for English language learners, but as with most better practices, it is excellent for all students.

To start, I explain the purpose for the activity (to discover new books to read; to build a stronger community of readers; to learn how to write and share a short book review). Then I model for the students how to prepare their reviews. Recently, I used a favorite chapter book/read aloud of mine, The Smartest Man in Ireland by Mollie Hunter. Here are my notes I wrote under the document camera for 5th graders.

The students write their own short summary notes as I write mine in front of them. I make the point that the focus is on being able to verbally share a book review. The notes are there as talking points. Also stressed is the importance of stating the author’s name and considering why the audience might want to read the book. Students are apt to describe why they like something without thinking about their listeners in their review.

With notes and book in hand, students get into two circles facing each other. For some humor, I share with the students that adults used to participate in speeddating to meet someone they might want to date (“Ewww!” is the common response). To draw the analogy, I explain that they should be particular about which book(s) they might want to read and to be a critical consumer if they don’t find a title appealing.

This leads into each student getting 1-2 minutes to verbally share a book revew of their favorite title with their partner and then switch. One side of the circle moves either to the left or to the right, and the process starts over again. When a book strikes their fancy, they should write it down to consider for later. They may not hear every book and that is okay. A final product is a to-read list on an index card they can use as a book mark.

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3. Book Raffle

In 2013 I wrote about hosting a book raffle in a 5th grade classroom (click here for that post). The idea comes from Reading in the Wild: The Book Whisperer’s Keys to Cultivating Lifelong Reading Habits by Donalyn Miller and Susan Kelley. Here is how it works:

  1. Select books from the school library and bring them into the classroom.
  2. Provide a list of the titles for each student + sticky notes for the raffle.
  3. Recommend each book to the students while they note which ones they want.
  4. Students put raffle tickets in for the texts they want to read.
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I have read all of these books. I could not recommend them without having read them.
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Students note which books they want on the list and prepare raffle tickets.
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The cups in front of each book will hold their raffle tickets.
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Students put in their raffle tickets for the books they want to read

All of the titles are from our school library. With the lists the students now have, they can check out any book they want but couldn’t get right away at a later date. I encourage students to “bug” their classmates to finish a book they want to read next.

All three of these activities are only the beginning for building reading engagement in a classroom. Teachers have to keep the momentum going, by reading aloud daily in the classroom, by frequently checking in and conferring with students during independent reading time, and by celebrating their literary accomplishments, such as number of books read and how widely they are reading. Donalyn Miller’s two resources (The Book Whisperer, Reading in the Wild) are filled with excellent ideas for any teacher looking to build reading engagement in their classrooms.

References

School Principal: Lead Learner? Lead Reader?

In a blog post for Nerdy Book Club, I quietly posed this question. I hear and see the title “Lead Learner” thrown out as a better way to describe the principalship. I appreciate the idea, as it seems to have good intentions, that we should all be about learning. A nice article in one of last year’s ASCD Education Update describes how two principals live out this title in their current roles.

Of course, there is critique in any level of change that has become an institution. For example, in that same article, Pernille Ripp questions why there needs to be a revision.

As adults, we get so caught up in titles, [but] kids are much more focused on what you’re doing rather than what they call you.

Baruti Kafele offers a similar sentiment regarding principals adopting this idea.

Why the title? I just want us to be a community of learners, but I don’t necessarily have to be the lead learner.

Like Pernille, Baruti emphasizes the importance of modeling what we want to see in our school. He offers examples in this video interview for ASCD.

For me, my title will remain “principal”. It is true that our position is defined in our actions rather than merely our words. I think about all the efforts made to promote authentic literacy in our school, from the morning announcements in which I share a book recommendation or a quote, to my staff newsletters in which I share my reading life, to the read alouds I do in classrooms. Yet despite all of these actions, I would not qualify myself as a “lead reader” anymore than a “lead learner”.

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Reading aloud Thank you, Mr. Falker by Patricia Polacco to 5th graders this year. 

What I will say about reading and the principalship is that there are few habits more important than being a wide and avid reader. I read newspapers, magazines, fiction, nonfiction, educational resources, blogs, tweets and posts, research articles, children’s literature…the list is almost endless. Having a diverse and deep knowledge base has been essential in my success as a school leader. The level of respect I might have as an instructional leader is dependent on this quality. It’s so important that I now schedule time to read professionally during the school day.

Any title we give ourselves is only as credible as how live out these words in our actions.

Recent Books I’ve Read and Recommend

Being in between positions, I am finding more time to read books and write about them. I usually post my ratings and reviews on Goodreads. This social media tool provides an HTML code of your post to publish on your blog. So…here you go! Look for more reviews over the summer. If you have titles you have read recently and would recommend, please post in the comments.

The Action Research Guidebook: A Four-Stage Process for Educators and School TeamsThe Action Research Guidebook: A Four-Stage Process for Educators and School Teams by Richard D. Sagor

My rating: 4 of 5 stars

A comprehensive guide for educators to conduct action research in schools. The author provides lots of templates as well as examples from both the teacher and principal perspective. I used this text to conduct my own action research. The four stage process was explained well. It might be too much information for educators just getting familiar with the action research process.

Beastly Bones (Jackaby, #2)Beastly Bones by William Ritter

My rating: 4 of 5 stars

An entertaining follow up to the first Jackaby book. The author provides enough red herrings to keep you guessing about the perpetrator and its origins. A nice blend of mystery, paranormal, and humor.

Solving 25 Problems in Unit Design: how do I refine my units to enhance student learning? (ASCD Arias)Solving 25 Problems in Unit Design: how do I refine my units to enhance student learning? by Jay McTighe

My rating: 4 of 5 stars

A nice companion to the other UbD resources by the authors. I could see teams of teachers using it when doing a curriculum audit.

Better: A Surgeon's Notes on PerformanceBetter: A Surgeon’s Notes on Performance by Atul Gawande

My rating: 5 of 5 stars

There are few books I elect to own in multiple formats. Better is one of them. I listened to it as an audiobook, and plan to purchase a physical copy soon. There are so many ideas in Better that I want to come back to: Innovation, systems thinking, improving performance, and doing the right thing that any person can relate to. It’s a book about medicine, yes, but so much more.

Digital Reading: What's Essential in Grades 3-8Digital Reading: What’s Essential in Grades 3-8 by William L. Bass II, Franki Sibberson

My rating: 5 of 5 stars

One of the rare #edtech books that prioritizes pedagogy over technology. The authors take a deep dive into the benefits and costs of reading on a screen. I especially enjoyed the chapters on connectedness and home-school communication.

Mistakes Were Made (Timmy Failure, #1)Mistakes Were Made by Stephan Pastis

My rating: 4 of 5 stars

A nice departure from Diary of a Wimpy Kid. Timmy may be the worst detective in history, mostly because he doesn’t listen to others or make basic observations. His ignorance leads him into a lot of trouble that is more funny than serious. The author keeps things grounded when he touches on Timmy’s home life, a realistic portrait of a single parent situation (minus the polar bear).

Show Your Work!: 10 Ways to Share Your Creativity and Get DiscoveredShow Your Work!: 10 Ways to Share Your Creativity and Get Discovered by Austin Kleon

My rating: 4 of 5 stars

A brief text filled with many ideas for sharing your work and process with others. Felt it was too short. The author could have expanded on some of the topics a bit more. Still, well worth my time reading it.

View all my reviews

The Principal’s Bookshelf: What I’ve Read, What I’m Reading, and What I Plan on Reading

Summer has arrived, or is soon coming. The upcoming break offers school leaders time to read and learn something new, or simply to enjoy the written word.

Here are some books that I have read, am reading, or will read that I would recommend.

What I’ve Read

The Test: Why Our Schools are Obsessed with Standardized Testing — But You Don’t Have to Be
by Anya Kamanetz

A good overview of the testing dilemma in the U.S. The book is at its strongest when Kamenetz explores the possibilities of what testing could look like in the future. Specifically, how technologies could pull data about student progress while they are engaged in learning is intriguing. However, there was a lot of research left by the wayside, with the author too often utilizing anecdotes and quotes to support her position. Still, The Test is a very helpful guide for someone looking to better understand this topic.

The Adventures of a South Pole Pig
by Chris Kurtz

I enjoyed reading aloud this chapter book to my daughter. It follows a similar narrative to Charlotte and Babe, yet the setting and major events make this book a unique read. Flora, a pig looking for adventure, gets hooked up with a team of explorers heading for the South Pole. She thinks she is destined to be a “sled pig”, but the ship’s cook has other ideas…

The Third Teacher
by OWP/P Architects, VS Furniture, Bruce Mau Design

Are you involved in the building or redesign of a new school? Thinking about installing a makerspace? This book is an essential resource for reconsidering how the learning spaces in schools serve students and teachers. There are many ideas and examples that educators can pull into their own buildings. The book itself is a product of design with unique fonts and compelling images.

Population: 485: Meeting Your Neighbors One Siren at a Time
by Michael Perry

I started reading this book shortly after hearing Michael Perry speak at our local public library. It’s a treat to hear a good author speak. They talk as they write – with the ability to spin a good story out of the ordinary. Population: 485 serves as a memoir for small town life in Northern Wisconsin. It also reminds the reader about being more present in our everyday experiences. For me, both hearing the author speak and reading his writing has helped me take life more slowly and deliberately.

Here are a few of my favorite quotes from the book:

The things that bring you joy tell you a lot about who you are. (p. 126)

Life is a preservation project. Our instinct for preservation plays out in everything from the depth of our breaths to an affection for bricks. Even as we flail and cling, trying to bottle time, to save it, we love only through its expenditure. Memory is a means of possession, but eventually, the greatest grace is found in letting go. (p. 178)

It is occurring to me that to truly live in a place, you must give your life to that place. It is a dynamic commitment, but it is also a manifestation of stillness. (p. 210)

Three Times Lucky (Tupelo Landing #1)
by Sheila Turnage

Wow, what a book! This necessary read aloud for middle level classrooms highlights one of the most original characters to come to modern children’s literature, Moses “Mo” LeBeau. She was washed downstream and discovered by The Colonel and Miss Lana, now her adoptive parents. Mo frequently writes to her “upstream mother”, while investigating a recent murder in Tupelo Landing, North Carolina with her best friend Dale. Mo’s witty quips and heartfelt efforts to find balance in her life makes Three Times Lucky a favorite of mine for children’s literature.

Free to Learn: Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life

by Peter Gray

If you are a public educator, read this book with an open mind. While the author does not hide his disdain for public education as a squasher of children’s creativity and love for learning, the research and experiences he uses to support his position are difficult to refute. I took the points that he made throughout this engaging informative text and considered how I might apply them in my current context as an elementary school principal. For example, can a school offer daily opportunities for kids to explore learning of their own choosing? I have a hard time seeing why not.

What I’m Reading

Write What Matters: For Yourself, For Others
by Tom Romano

This resource will sit alongside my other writing references, such as On Writing by Stephen King and Bird by Bird by Anne LaMott. Romano is a long time writing teacher at the University of Miami in Oxford, Ohio. Each short chapter serves as a quick lesson on one aspect of the writing process. Much joy, honesty and reflection inhabit this very personal book, which also serves as a memoir of sorts for Romano. Read Write What Matter slowly, and apply each bit of instruction to your own writing life.

Mistakes Were Made (Timmy Failure #1)
by Stephan Pastis

This first installment in a children’s book series, which I am reading aloud to my son, is within the same vein as Diary of a Wimpy Kid. Timmy is a clueless kid detective who lives up to his last name by not noticing the obvious when taking on cases. We are only a third of the way through it, and so far we are appreciating the author’s unique sense of humor and the realistic family dynamics of Timmy’s life that add some heart to this series.

Better: A Surgeon’s Notes on Performance
by Atul Gawande

This book has been highly recommended to me. The author, a practicing surgeon, shares anecdotes and research about how the best organizations and individuals continuously focus on becoming better in their practice. Gawande’s writing is general enough that any professional can apply his principles to their own work. (For a good example of the connection between the author’s ideas and teacher practice, check out this article by Susan L. Lytle from the University of Pennsylvania.)

What I Plan on Reading

The Together Leader: Get Organized for Your Success – And Sanity!
by Maia Heyck-Merlin

I am reading this productivity resource to review for MiddleWeb. Getting more organized and efficient in my daily life as a principal is always an area of interest. In my initial preview of this text, the author offers several self-assessments to help the reader identify their strengths and areas for growth as a leader. Heyck-Merlin also offers a digital newsletter for readers to subscribe to with new strategies for becoming a better manager and leader.

The Art of Coaching Teams: Facilitation for School Transformation
by Elena Aguilar

In The Principal, Michael Fullan shares his belief that school leaders should focus on building the capacities of teacher teams instead of individuals. Aguilar offers specifics on how to make this happen. The author provides several protocols and templates for facilitating professional learning, as well as advice on how to work with different personalities within a school. The Together Leader and The Art of Coaching Teams are the resources I am exploring as I prepare for a new position in Mineral Point, WI.

Beastly Bones (Jackaby #2)
by William Ritter

The second installment in this YA series continues to follow the story of junior detective Abigail Rook and her eccentric employer R.F. Jackaby. They specialize in the supernatural and unexplainable. The book starts with Rook and Jackaby discovering creatures that physically change into the prey they are hunting. Ritter’s stories are full of creative ideas. It is hard to anticipate where the writer will go next, which makes these Victorian-age mysteries all the more fun to read.

So what have you read recently or are currently reading that you would recommend to other school leaders? Please share in the comments.