What I’m Reading – June 2017

What I’ve Read

Evil at Heart (Archie Sheridan & Gretchen Lowell, #3) by Chelsea Cain

This psychological thriller series is hard to put down. The flawed characters, plot twists, and Portland, OR setting make for an engaging read.

Walking Trees: Portraits of Teachers and Children in the Culture of Schools by Ralph Fletcher

Very few books take an unfiltered look into the reality of schools and leaders making efforts to improve education. Fletcher’s memoir is funny, honest and, at times, tragic.

Nothing But the Truth by Avi 

Near the end of this book, as the two main characters (teacher, student) realized that no good resolution was going to come from their situation, I thought about Wayne Dyer’s precept from Wonder by R.J. Palacio:

“When given the choice between being right and being kind, choose kind.” 

I was introduced to this book by a thoughtful middle-level English teacher. She was guiding the students to think deeply about rights vs. responsibilities in a democracy. I would have enjoyed being a student in her class! Nothing But the Truth is a strong text for facilitating smart discussions.

Bold Moves for Schools: How We Create Remarkable Learning Environments by Heidi Hayes Jacobs, Marie Hubley Alcock

This book provides an essential vision and pathway for what schools should strive to become in this century.

Not Quite Narwhal by Jessie Sima

Wow, what a perfect book for helping kids (and adults?) understand that not everyone fits into a simple category. Definitely a text that could precede a conversation on empathy, gender, and/or acceptance. 

Bob, Not Bob!: *to be read as though you have the worst cold ever by Liz Garton Scanlon, Audrey Vernick, Matthew Cordell (illustrator)

You must read this aloud as if you have a cold. It’s a picture book that begs to be shared with others. I’m sure kids will clamor to reread the text and emulate the funny dialogue that leads to a satisfying ending. 

Truck: A Love Story by Michael Perry

A great follow-up to the author’s first memoir on small town life. If Population: 485 told the story of New Auburn, WI through the eyes of Michael Perry, then Truck: A Love Story shares the story of Michael Perry through the collective lens of his northern Wisconsin township. Perry provides more humor and self-deprecation as he provides a close examination of his two parallel endeavors: fixing up an old truck that’s been sitting in his yard and finally finding his partner in life.

The War of Art: Break Through the Blocks & Win Your Inner Creative Battles by Steven Pressfield

In a funk with your creative work? Pick up Pressfield’s short guide to battling your artistic block. He personifies all of our excuses reasons for not pursuing our passion projects as “The Resistance”. How we attack this common occurrence is the topic of this practical resource. 

It’s Not About the Coffee: Leadership Principles from a Life at Starbucks by Howard Behar

This short memoir is focused on one thing: When it comes to running an organization, it’s about the people. Whether we sell coffee or any other service or product, our priority should be the people we serve and those we serve with. Behar restates this philosophy a hundred different ways, which can be either affirming or redundant for the reader. For me, I appreciated hearing from a business leader that advocates for people over product, especially in today’s world. 

Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (Harry Potter, #4)
by J.K. Rowling, Mary GrandPré (Illustrator)

Just finished reading this to my son. It’s my second time reading it. All I can say is: wow, what a story. J.R.R. Tolkien and George R.R. Martin have nothing on J.K. Rowling. If you’ve only seen the movie, do yourself a favor and read the book. Read the whole series. Rowling gives us some of the best writing of our times.

 

What I’m Reading

The Things They Carried by Tim O’Brien 

From the Goodreads summary: 

They carried malaria tablets, love letters, 28-pound mine detectors, dope, illustrated bibles, each other. And if they made it home alive, they carried unrelenting images of a nightmarish war that history is only beginning to absorb. Since its first publication, The Things They Carried has become an unparalleled Vietnam testament, a classic work of American literature, and a profound study of men at war that illuminates the capacity, and the limits, of the human heart and soul.

The Things They Carried depicts the men of Alpha Company: Jimmy Cross, Henry Dobbins, Rat Kiley, Mitchell Sanders, Norman Bowker, Kiowa, and the character Tim O’Brien, who has survived his tour in Vietnam to become a father and writer at the age of forty-three.

Rethinking Rubrics in Writing Instruction by Maja Wilson

From the Goodreads summary:

Though you may sense a disconnect between student-centered teaching and rubric-based assessment, you may still use rubrics for convenience or for want of better alternatives. Rethinking Rubrics in Writing Assessment gives you the impetus to make a change, demonstrating how rubrics can hurt kids and replace professional decision making with an inauthentic pigeonholing that stamps standardization onto a notably nonstandard process. With an emphasis on thoughtful planning and teaching, Wilson shows you how to reconsider writing assessment so that it aligns more closely with high-quality instruction and avoids the potentially damaging effects of rubrics.

  

What I Plan to Read Next

Magic and Loss: The Internet as Art by Virginia Heffernan

Textbook Amy Krouse Rosenthal by Amy Krouse Rosenthal

Janesville: An American Story by Amy Goldstein

 

Thinking About Assessment…

My son’s first swim meet was tonight. After his five events, he told me he wanted to get to practice tomorrow for two reasons: to see how he and his teammates did and to swim some more.

The best assessments create a desire to want to improve and learn more. I post my books here not to show what I know, but because it’s important for me to go back over my reading list, see what I’ve read, and make plans to read for the future. Maybe someone will comment on what I’ve read, share their response to the same text, and offer another title that relates to this book. Maybe I’ll do the same.

I think you can learn a lot about someone by looking at what they read. If I were to look at my list from the outside and not as myself, I might think: 

• This guy reads a lot.

• He either has kids or works with kids.

• If he reads a nonfiction text, he is likely to pick up fiction next.

• Learning for life is important to him.

This reading list and my responses to the books I read offer a lot of information about who I am as a reader. A teacher would not need to give me a multiple choice quiz to assess whether I comprehended the texts or not. It’s as clear as day in my brief reactions. Maybe a more important assessment point is the fact that I am currently reading and that I have books that I want to read next. Seems important to me anyway.

In one of the books I am currently reading, Rethinking Rubrics in Writing Instruction, Maja Wilson offers a convincing argument about how traditional assessment practices can impact our instruction. It’s one of the best educational resources I’ve read. There are many memorable lines, and I’ll share one here I feel is pertinent.

Encouraged by the performance levels on the rubric to rank students against an external standard, our readings of student work are based firmly in a deficit model. We look for mistakes, inconsistencies, and unclear thinking to justify which square in the matrix we will circle. (pg. 30)

Assessment in literacy should have no room for competition. There are no winners, no losers. Reading and writing should be a community experience. We celebrate our friends’ successes and help them improve in areas of growth. In a classroom that promotes connectedness and democracy, our peers’ strengths are to our benefit. My reading list is evidence of my life as a reader, as well as a member of a community of readers.

Beyond the Book: Summer Literacy Adventures

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We are in the final month of school in Calgary and it is busy! It is so busy we feel it in our breath, our movements, and every thought. At times like this, it is easy to fall prey to the busy. But when we focus on what is most important, we are reminded that busy is not why we are here. Our students deserve all that we can give, especially in the busy of these final weeks.

With this in mind, I decided to follow Matt Renwick’s example and frame this post as a bridge between school and summer. Matt’s last blog post offered some fantastic suggestions around facilitating summer reading through authentic experiences. After reading I wondered, what else might we do to support our students over summer?

Knowing oral language is the foundation of literacy, my mind wandered there. In their book Literacy: Reading the word and the world, Freire and Macedo remind us “reading does not consist merely of decoding the written word or language; rather it is preceded by and intertwined with knowledge of the world (1987, p. 29). Following their advice, I looked to the world to see what might be reflected back to me.

Below are some suggestions that might open up how students and their families approach literacy over the summer months.

  1. Make time for talk.

Remember that feeling of busy I began this post with? The great thing about summer is family and friends generally have more time to spend together. Car rides, family outings, dinner conversations, and campfire evenings are great opportunities to connect and build literacies outside of classroom walls. Dr. Catherine Snow and Diane Beals offer some useful suggestions (2006) about mealtime talk that supports literacy development. They suggest the conversations that happen at the dinner table can provide opportunities to talk about topics in greater depth (extended discourse). The common narrative or explanatory structures typically used at mealtimes expose children to relatively sophisticated vocabulary. Summer is a great time to remind your students and their families that their dinner table conversations are important. Of course, the dinner table can really be any place depending on the weather!

  1. Explore your place.

As educators, we understand that literacy does not live in one place. It occurs within and between contexts. Students can learn what words mean in the world in order to better understand and use them in print. Many places offer free summer opportunities for families to wander, experience, and talk. Sharing some examples with parents (such as this http://www.todocanada.ca/free-family-activities-every-day-summer-calgary/) can help families step into rich literacy experiences. These opportunities help build students’ knowledge, which in turn helps them with reading and writing. Lots of these hot spots also offer maps or guides when you visit, so make sure to remind parents that books are not the only sources of print in our lives.

Offering parents simple conversation structures such as ‘Strive for 5’ (Weitzman & Greenberg, 2010, p. 11) can also help deepen potential conversations to get kids talking and learning during family outings. Letting children lead the conversation, asking open-ended questions, and aiming for at least 5 turns back and forth increase the likelihood of extended conversation and extended learning. As adults, we often forget that to our children our world is new and exciting. Taking time to listen, question, and talk together will remind everyone we truly do live in a WONDERful place.

  1. Leverage what they love.

Anyone who is a parent knows that summer is not all a ball of sunshine. Some days are rainy and some days everyone just needs a break from each other. We also know how much kids love technology. Some well-chosen websites can save even the rainiest of summer days. Camp Wonderopolis offers many rich literacy provocations and the multimodal structure that draws kids in. Alternatively, playing audio books or podcasts on car rides or during ‘quiet time’ opens up more chances to listen, talk, and build knowledge together. Jennifer Gonzalez offers a parent-friendly explanation and some of her favourite podcasts here that could be a great blog post to share with parents heading into summer.

While I know that summertime literacy is not as easy as this list suggests, I also know there are some intentional things we can do over the summer months to keep kids learning and growing. If we can support parents to see the everyday literacy opportunities in their world, it opens up new ways to connect and support their children.

What suggestions would you add to this list? What opportunities can you find when you look at the world as our literacy classroom? Please share your ideas in the comments.

With thanks,

Heather

References

Freire, P., & Macedo, D.P. (1987). Literacy: Reading the word and the world. South Hadley, MA: Bergin & Garvey.

Snow, C. E., & Beals, D. E. (2006). Mealtime talk that supports literacy development. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development,2006(111), 51-66. doi:10.1002/cd.155

Weitzman, E., & Greenberg, J. (2010). ABC and beyond: building emergent literacy in early childhood settings. Toronto: The Hanen Centre.

 

What I’m Reading: March 2017

Professional Resources

Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology: The Digital Revolution and Schooling in America by Allan Collins and Richard Halverson (Teachers College, 2009)

An essential resource for thinking about and discussing technology in education. The authors provide a thorough history of what has come regarding schooling and how it is not a good fit with our knowledge society. This book is not outdated; the concepts and critiques are just as relevant today.

Pedagogy of the Oppressed by Paulo Freire (Bloomsbury, 1970, 2000)

I took on this classic in order to better understand critical literacy and its foundations. I will be honest: this was a tough, slow read. However, it might also be an essential text for any educator looking to understand the importance of being literate in a changing world. I’m glad I finished it.

 Personal Reading

The Plot Against America by Phillip Roth (Vintage, 2005)

The premise of the novel is Charles Lindbergh is elected president, denying Franklin D. Roosevelt a third term. The famous aviator arrives at the White House on a singular promise: to avoid going to war with Germany. His isolationist platform is in contrast to FDR’s growing concerns regarding anti-Semitism spreading across Europe. Lindbergh’s affinity for the Nazi party comes to light more and more as the story progresses. This piece of fiction is based on the events of this time, told through the author’s perspective as a Jewish child growing up in New Jersey. It almost reads like a memoir with all of the details.

The City of Mirrors by Justin Cronin (Ballantine, 2016)

An excellent way to close out this sci-fi/literature trilogy. Epic in its scope yet manages to find a balance with small moments. For me, The City of Mirrors stands alongside The Stand by Stephen King and American Gods by Neil Gaiman. My only regret is that I read each of the three books when they came out. The amount of time between books made it a challenge to remember all of the details from previous stories.

Children’s Literature

The Most Magnificent Thing by Ashley Spires (Kids Can, 2014)

A thoughtful and humorous picture book about the design process. The story’s message of kids needing opportunities to be challenged with personal inquiries is well heeded. A perfect read aloud for teachers getting started in Genius Hour or Makerspaces.

Millions by Frank Cottrell Boyce (HarperCollins, 2005)

The unique idea behind this story (boy finds a quarter million pounds before England changes to the Euro) makes for an excellent study on values and our choices. The author does not try to preach about the ills that money can bring to our lives. Instead, he lets the well-drawn characters reveal themselves in the situation presented. The ending is satisfying even though the author does not wrap things up in a nice tidy bow. Highly recommended read aloud for intermediate/middle-level classes.

We Found a Hat by Jon Klassen (Candlewick, 2016)

It had to have been hard for Klassen to follow up on his first two pictures books, I Want My Hat Back and This is Not My Hat. Yet the author succeeds. Two turtles find one hat. They both agree that it is a nice hat. So how do they reconcile this situation? The illustrations tell as much of the story as the text.

The Connection Between Reading and Writing

Not that long ago, I was struggling to write, digital or print. To be fair, my time was committed to formal projects. Reading also took a back seat. Was there more to it? I have heard of this reluctance to write as “the resistance”. This invisible force throws up mental roadblocks whenever we see a blank piece of paper or an untitled document. It can happen for all learners. A strategy I learned for this type of situation was suggested by Regie Routman at the Wisconsin State Reading Association Convention.

If a student is having a hard time getting started with their writing, ask them what they would like to read.

This advice was excellent. It felt unexpected at first but now makes so much sense. By always “doing” – working, talking, traveling – but not taking the time to read and reflect, we struggle to write. We know that reading and writing are connected. So why do we still silo these two disciplines in our instruction and in our lives? Reading is the foundation for much of what we write. Writing is how we make visible all that we have read, experienced, and reflected upon. One does not exist without the other.

Tomorrow I fly out from the ASCD convention in Anaheim to home in Wisconsin. I could certainly get a lot of work done during layovers. But I kind of hope the wireless will be spotty. The opportunities for some quiet time to read in a connected, constantly in motion world are hard to come by.

 

 

Makerspaces and Opportunities for Learning Literacy

In 2011, a faculty member wanted to bring in a summer school program for some of our gifted and talented students. Called “Camp Invention”, students spent a week taking apart computers and creating new worlds with peers. I had never seen students more engaged in learning than during this experience.

Afterward, something nagged at me: the program was not intentional about incorporating reading and writing into the curriculum. I could understand the rationale. Educators are always trying to stuff literacy into anything students are doing. Yet are these two areas – innovation and literacy – mutually exclusive?

Halverson and Sheridan tease out the complex nature of the maker movement in education (2014). They define it through three lenses: “making as a set of activities, makerspaces as communities of practice, and makers as identities of participation” (501). In literacy, students are (or at least should be) constantly making. For example, consider the verbs we use to describe writing. We craft an essay, develop a narrative, and build an argument. These actions cross the line between the tinkering, creating and iterating that happens in makerspaces and the drafting, revising and publishing that is synonymous with language arts. Halverson and Sheridan also see the possibilities.

“Learning through making reaches across the divide between formal and informal learning, pushing us to think more expansively about where and how learning happens. In this way we can talk about the who, what, and how of learning without getting hung up on the rules and constraints that govern different settings” (498).

A question that frequently comes up in education circles is, “How do we get started with makerspaces?” Teachers usually follow this up with concerns about time, resources and administrative support. Now in my second district, and having visited several more, I can say that makerspaces are unique from school to school. Some buildings house makerspaces in their libraries, while others have a separate, dedicated space. When it is not a building initiative, makerspaces find space in teacher’s classrooms under the guise of “Genius Hour”.

What they all have in common is they are personalized to the needs of the students. The kids direct the learning. In response, the adults often adjust their roles to that of a coach and guide on the side. The observed result is higher levels of student engagement in school, which tends to spill over into the core academic areas. Gershenfeld has found increased engagement to be true, noting how personalization is “a market of one person”. In makerspaces, students might start creating something of their own interest, but a lack of purpose and audience might propel them to start thinking about how they can make an impact in the broader world.

For instance, 6th grade teacher Chris Craft has led his students in South Carolina to print more than 150 prosthetic human hands for people in need using a 3-D printer (Herold, 2016). This work includes video production and online sharing, all critical literacy skills for the 21st century. This example and others similar show how schools can “decentralize enthusiasm” (Gershenfeld, 57) in the goal of creating engagement in learning through doing real work while applying core competencies. Literacy appears to lend itself way to many of these opportunities.

References

Gershenfeld, N. (2012). How to make almost anything: The digital fabrication revolution. Foreign Aff., 91, 43.

Halverson, E. R., & Sheridan, K. (2014). The maker movement in education. Harvard Educational Review, 84(4), 495-504.

Herold, B. (2016). What It Takes to Move From ‘Passive’ to ‘Active’ Tech Use in K-12 Schools. Education Week: Technology Counts, 82(2), 33.

Costs and Benefits of Social Media in Education

On more than one occasion I have misplaced my smart phone. My initial response is panic (“What if someone is trying to get a hold of me?”). After this is general acceptance of my disconnectedness. In these opportunities for solitude my mind tends to wander. I cannot check Twitter, Facebook or a Google+ Community, so I seek different forms of cognitive engagement, such as connecting with my family more and attending to the immediate experiences in front of me. With being disconnected, I also find myself reflecting on my experiences and plans for the future. Yes, I miss having the world’s knowledge and diverse communities at my fingertips. But there is a cost to this access.

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This lead presents a counter to the promise of the Internet facilitating powerful connections among people. There is little doubt that social media and engaging in global and diverse conversations has brought many benefits to society at large, especially for our younger generation studied extensively by Ito and colleagues (2008). Adolescents can feel empowered when they engage in online communities around areas of interest. They can participate at their preferred depth and frequency, either as an observer and/or a contributor. There are no age limits; perceived and actual levels of expertise and curiosity determine the authority that is attributed to a participant.

The opportunities provided through social media are not only couched in learning. There are also social and emotional advantages to these new connections, also pointed out by Ito and fellow researchers.

“These processes make social status and friendship more explicit and public, providing a broader set of contexts for observing these informal forms of social evaluation and peer-based learning. In other words, it makes peer negotiations visible in new ways, and it provides opportunities to observe and learn about social norms from their peers” (18-19).

It is tempting to paint a largely rosy picture of a highly connected world. Yet as I pointed out, there are trade-offs to being “always on”. danah boyd, author of It’s Complicated: The Social Lives of Networked Teens (2014), also finds the benefits that youth reap in “networked publics”, extensions that allows them to “extend the pleasure” (4) of their locally-based friendships. While these online spaces allow for the social interaction that adolescents crave, these digital communities can also create new challenges. For example, students will post something that they believe is temporary, yet can stick around for a long time if the recipient chooses to save it.

“Conversations conducted through social media are far from ephemeral; they endure…Alice’s message doesn’t expire when Bob reads it, and Bob can keep that message for decades” (11).

Also of concern is how Internet-mediated relationships can alter in-person interactions. Social scientist Sherry Turkle found that the mere presence of a smartphone at a dinner table keeps people’s conversations at more surface-level topics (2015). Guest’s attention is “split” between the present dialogue and what might be happening online.

I don’t want to come across as a Luddite when I question the efficacy of learning through social media. My many connections via Facebook, Twitter and blogging have brought formally unattainable knowledge to my work and a richer experience to my world. I just wouldn’t want it to monopolize the life I have in front of me.

References

Boyd, D. (2014). It’s complicated: The social lives of networked teens. Yale University Press.

Ito, M., Horst, H., Bittanti, M., Boyd, D., Herr-Stephenson, R., Lange, P. & Robinson, L. (2008). Living and learning with new media. MacArthur Foundation. Chicago, IL.

Turkle, S. (2015). Stop Googling. Let’s talk. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/27/opinion/sunday/stop-googling-lets-talk.html

The Thin Line Between Critical Literacy and New Literacies

This is another reaction I wrote to assigned reading for the graduate course I am taking through the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Technology and School Leadership. Enjoy!

Critical literacy is an instructional approach that “advocates the adoption of ‘critical’ perspectives toward text. Critical literacy encourages readers to actively analyze texts and offers strategies for what proponents describe as uncovering underlying messages” (Wikipedia). This approach asks readers to investigate why the author wrote what they did, what writing tools they used to convey their ideas and why, as well as to investigate underlying messages within the text.

Also important regarding critical literacy is exploring multiple perspectives by reading various texts to understand what concepts a writer left out of a piece and why they might do that. Critical literacy’s roots are founded in social justice. It “requires imagining others’ intentions, adopting multiple perspectives, and imagining social arrangements that don’t yet exist” (Johnston, 73). People from both affluent and non affluent backgrounds benefit from instruction that helps them take another person’s perspective, as well as to have the tools to lift themselves out of poverty.

The question then is, What does critical literacy have to do with new literacies, which “include the traditional literacy that evolved with print culture as well as the newer forms of literacy within mass and digital media” (Jenkins, 19)?

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Quite a bit.

First, both new literacies and critical literacy demand a context within the broader society. Because of its foundations in social justice, critical literacy may ask students to closely read multiple pieces of work on a relevant topic in order to understand how some writers might exclude certain perspectives in order to better persuade an audience. Likewise, with the new literacies everyone can be an author who brings a specific perspective. People’s positions and experiences described on websites and blogs matter as much as the accuracy of the information presented. “We might well find that much of the meaning to be made from the content has to do with who we think the blog writer is: what they are like, how they want to think of themselves, and how they want us to think of them” (Lankshear & Knobel, 4).

Second, students in both instructional approaches are expected to be participants in the learning. Whether a dialogue about what is read and what is written happens online or off, learners should have opportunities to engage in dialogue about information. This includes actively listening to someone else’s point of view without immediately disagreeing, and reconsidering one’s beliefs in light of new information presented. Critical literacy applied in this fashion better prepares students to be college and career ready.

New literacies, with their dynamic capabilities, invites a response from an audience. For example, when someone posts on their blog, this published piece is sometimes the start of a conversation rather than finished work. Within the comments and the sharing via social media, followers and connected educators can engage in a dialogue around the ideas initially shared. The participatory nature of online learning helps ensure that those who post have at least some level of reliable rationale to support their positions.

These similarities beg a follow up question: are the new literacies merely critical literacy adapted for a more connected world? Adages such as “Today’s students require tomorrow’s literacy skills” (Forzani, 2) might still apply. Yet the common threads between critical literacy and new literacies are hard to ignore.

References

Critical literacy. (2016, May 14). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14:00, October 25, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Critical_literacy&oldid=720298766

Forzani, E. (2013). Teaching Digital Literacies for the Common Core: What Results From New Assessments Tell Us. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut.

Jenkins, H. (2009). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Johnston, P. (2012). Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.

Lankshear, C., & Knobel, M. (2007). A New Literacies Sampler. New York: Peter Lang.

Innovating Inside the Box

This is a reaction paper I wrote for a course I am taking at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, “Technology and School Leadership”, facilitated by Dr. Richard Halverson. Enjoy!

Government, philanthropists and investors consistently come up with grand ideas and approaches to fixing education. Standards-based reform, new evaluation systems and 1:1 technology initiatives populate the school landscape. Yet there is very little to show for these efforts in terms of improving student outcomes.

One approach heralded by reformists is the charter school movement and offering school choice for families. The original intent of this movement was to free educators from the constraints of local bureaucracy and accountability measures “so schools and teachers can try things” (Kolderie, 10). Unfortunately, when results showed that charter schools were not seeing better results than traditional schools, the accountability pieces were brought back. Many charters now languish in corporate-run organizations with little personal investment from the higher ups. This is compounded with charters having to deal with poorer public perception. 

So what is the solution? Kolderie suggests bringing charters back with their original intent and positioning them as parallel programs. He refers to this as a “split-screen strategy”. “It is time to run both improvement and innovation simultaneously, side by side” (14). The idea is, while traditional public schools can work on continuous improvement, charter schools can serve as research and development arms of education. Eventually, Kolderie predicts, the traditional schools will adopt the strategies of the chartering organizations.

Innovation is critical for the success of American education, and chartering remains the states’ and the nation’s best strategy for innovation—for introducing, quickly, the new approaches to learning now possible. Innovation is chartering’s comparative advantage (30).

I would agree with Kolderie that innovation is critical for American education. Where I diverge philosophically from him is: why do we need charters to innovate?

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As a school administrator going on ten years, I see few roadblocks in offering parallel programs within one school or district. Certainly, there are test scores to worry about, although if innovation is truly happening, we are building on what we are already doing and making it better. For this to work, school leaders need to support these efforts. Permission alone is not enough.

In addition, these efforts to innovate through the use of pedagogical approaches and technologies should not have to be an either/or proposition. For example, could one school offer two learning pathways in their building, with one option the traditional model and the other a more innovative concept? Families, educators and students (yes, students!) can determine which is best for each child. The innovative concept can start small and then grow as demand grows with it.

To conclude, when we take the approach that schools need to be fixed, and we never question the questioners, it builds on a deficit model. I understand the need to upend some outdated practices, especially when modern resources are so readily available for schools. Instead of “How do we improve schools?”, what if we supported schools and allowed them to improve from within? This is a strengths-based approach that taps into the existing knowledge within an organization. “Research and development should focus on what works for whom, when, and in what contexts” (Dede, 22). We have had a high stakes environment for the entire 21st century. It hasn’t worked. A level of autonomy along with the time and resources might prove to be the better strategy for change.

References

Dede, C. (2014). The Role of Digital Technologies in Deeper Learning. Students at the Center: Deeper Learning Research Series. Boston, MA: Jobs for the Future.

Kolderie, T. (2014). The Split Screen Strategy: Improvement + Innovation. Edina, MN: Beaver’s Pond.